Global Tech Policy Update – June 2016


Internet of Things – The ACM U.S. Public Policy Council submitted comments on the Internet of Things to the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). The comments describe the challenges and opportunities arising from IoT, including new technical and policy challenges related to privacy and security. Further, new identifiers, components, devices, and infrastructure will raise issues of computing capability, privacy, security, usability, accessibility, spectrum availability, standards, networks, and interoperability. Because IoT systems can and do operate across borders creating challenges for protecting the broader integrity of IoT systems and individual privacy, fostering and leveraging cooperation among governments and the private sector is vital to achieving an innovative and resilient IoT ecosystem. The comments will help inform a forthcoming NTIA Green Paper on IoT.

Artificial Intelligence – The ACM Public Policy staff attended the White House Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Social Good. Speakers included ACM Fellow Henry Kautz and ACM Fellow Eric Horvitz, who received this year’s ACM-AAAI Allen Newell Award for his groundbreaking contributions in AI. The workshop was held in collaboration with the Computing Community Consortium (CCC) and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI). The slides and videos are available online.

The next White House Workshop on Safety and Control for Artificial Intelligence on June 28 at Carnegie Mellon University will feature four ACM Fellows and one ACM award recipient: ACM Fellow Tom Dietterich, ACM Fellow Kathleen Fisher, ACM Fellow John Launchbury, ACM Fellow Jeannette Wing, and ACM/SIGART Autonomous Agents Research Award recipient Manuela M. Veloso.

Computer Science Education – A new ITIF report on improving computer science education in the United States cites the ACM Education Policy Committee’s report, Running on Empty: The Failure to Teach K-12 Computer Science in the Digital Age and the ACM/CSTA report, Bugs in the System: Computer Science Teacher Certification in the U.S.. The ITIF report’s findings are consistent with ACM’s recommendations in the Running on Empty report and its successor report published by the ACM Education Policy Committee last year titled Rebooting the Pathway to Success, including allowing computer science to count as a core graduation subject, teaching computer science in all high schools, increasing the number of qualified computer science teachers, and creating postsecondary incentives. The report adds to the growing tide of support in countries around the world for expanding access to quality computer science education and increasing the number of talented computing educators.

Informal STEM Education – ACM and six other associations co-sponsored a well-attended congressional briefing by the STEM Education Coalition Policy Forum on “Informal STEM Education 101: What We Know and Don’t: The State of the Art on Research on Outcomes in Informal STEM Education.” The standing room only briefing featured remarks by Honorary Congressional Co-Host Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson. Panelists included NSF Assistant Director of the Education and Human Resources Directorate Joan Ferrini-Mundy, University of Washington Senior Research Scientist Dr. Bronwyn Bevan, and Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education Project Director James Bell. The panel also coincided with the release of the STEM Education Coalition’s newest education policy white paper, “The Case for Investing in Out-of-School Learning as a Core Strategy in Improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education.”

Human–Computer Interaction and International Public Policymaking – A new journal article by the ACM SIGCHI International Public Policy Committee outlines the importance of HCI in public policy internationally and the impacts of public policy on the HCI community. The article discusses how public policy influences HCI and explores areas where HCI could have even more impact in the future, including laws, regulations, and guidelines related to interface design, intellectual property, accessibility, usability, privacy, security, and computing research. The article was authored by 31 members from 15 countries and published in the Foundations and Trends Human–Computer Interaction.

Upcoming ACM Public Policy Meetings

• The ACM Education Policy Committee will hold its annual international meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 24, 2016 to discuss progress and possible future activities to improve and advance computer science, computing, and informatics education policy and computing workforce development.

• The ACM Europe Policy Committee will hold its monthly conference call on June 28, 2016.

• The ACM U.S. Public Policy Council will hold its next conference call on July 13, 2016 to discuss next steps for the three new working groups on algorithmic accountability, big data, and the Internet of Things, and the ongoing activities of the permanent committees on privacy, security, intellectual property, digital governance, accessibility, voting, and tech law.


Internet Governance – As an important step in the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) stewardship transition from the U.S. government to a global multistakeholder process, the U.S. Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) announced that the proposal developed by the global Internet multistakeholder community meets the criteria for privatization of IANA functions outlined by NTIA in March 2014. Major IANA functions include managing the DNS root zone, domain names, the numbering systems, and protocol assignments. NTIA’s criteria for privatization include maintaining the Internet’s security and resiliency, maintaining openness, meeting the needs of global customers, and supporting a private multistakerholder governance model. NTIA’s assessment of the IANA Stewardship Transition Proposal favors transition, but further approvals are required. The U.S. Congress continues to debate the transition and the timing of the transition. The current IANA contract with ICANN expires on September 30, 2016.

ICANN is accepting public input on its proposed Restated Articles of Incorporation until July 6, 2016. The ICANN Board will review the comments prior to its consideration of the adoption of the Restated Articles. ICANN explains that the new governance document, once adopted, would go into effect in the event NTIA approves of the IANA Stewardship Transition Proposal and the IANA Functions Contract expires.

The ICANN56 Policy Forum will be held on 27-30 June 2016 in Helsinki, Finland. Attendance is free. Pre-registration is strongly encouraged.

Spectrum and Satellite Communications – The ITU International Satellite Communication Symposium will be held in Geneva, June 13-14, 2016. Experts will explore the latest technologies and innovations used to detect, prevent, and mitigate harmful interference in satellite communications. Non-interference is vital to ensuring public safety and to building a more resilient wireless ecosystem. Attendees will include satellite industry, operators, regulators, and broadcasters from around the world.

ITU and UN Women GEM-TECH Awards 2016 – UN Women and the ITU invite nominations for the GEM-TECH Awards, which recognize exceptional work in the areas of: (1) promoting women in the tech sector, (2) women’s digital inclusion and empowerment, and (3) new legislative and policy initiatives promoting gender-inclusive ICT access/education. Self-nominations are accepted. Nominations must be submitted by July 31.

WTO Public ForumRegistration is now open for WTO’s largest annual outreach event attended by civil society, academia, business, media, governments, parliamentarians, and inter-governmental organizations. This year’s theme is “Inclusive Trade.” Registration for this 15th annual event closes on 18 September 2016.

Human Rights Council Report on Freedom of Expression in the Digital Age – A new report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression, David Kaye, to the Human Rights Council discusses legal and policy concerns related to freedom of expression online. The report identifies and explores the relevant human rights standards applicable to States and the private sector. Among its findings and general recommendations, the report recommends governments ensure meaningful opportunities for input and participation in public policy processes by the private sector, civil society, the technical community, and academia.


1st European Maker Week – Europe celebrated the inaugural European Maker Week with 500+ events in 28 countries across Europe during 30 May – 5 June 2016. Promoted by the European Commission, in-person and online events sought to engage citizens and students in creativity and innovation. The Opening Conference and celebration launch featured remarks by Director General of DG Direct Roberto Viola. Did you participate? Do you have ideas for new projects involving computing? Share your experiences and ideas online using hashtag: #EMWeek16

5G Deployment and Research – The European Commission released a roadmap for widespread deployment of the next generation of ubiquitous, ultra-high bandwidth wired and wireless communication systems by 2020. The Commission in April identified 5G and Internet of Things as among the ICT standardisation priorities for the Digital Single Market and has earmarked funding through the Horizon 2020 Programme to accelerate research developments in 5G technology. The Commission supports international cooperation on 5G. The need for 5G technology will be discussed at the EUBrazilCloudForum Workshop on Cloud Networks on 6 July 2016 in Brazil.

Intellectual Property – The European Commission’s DG GROW published a roadmap for the initiative “Modernising the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights.” It calls for a focus on commercial-scale infringements. The initiative is supportive of a larger effort to modernize copyright protections and enforcement for the digital age. According to the roadmap, a report by the European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights on regional and national legislative measures and procedures to prevent and combat online copyright violations and their effectiveness is expected in 2016. Updates will be posted on a dedicated website of DG Grow.

Europe – Opportunities for Public Input

eGovernment Action Plan 2016–2020
European Commission
Posted: 2 June 2016
Deadline: Ongoing
Submit ideas for how to improve eGovernment services in the EU.

EU Copyright Reform for the Digital Age
European Commission
Deadline: 15 June 2016

Europe in My Region Blogging Competition 2016
European Commission – Regional Policy
Deadline: 17 June 2016
Blogs on Horizon 2020 projects and other computing-related activities are encouraged.

Revision of the European Interoperability Framework
European Commission
Deadline: 29 June 2016

Draft Sharing and Reuse Framework for IT Solutions
European Commission
Deadline: 29 June 2016
The results of this survey will be available in July 2016. Publication of the final version of the recommendations is anticipated later this year.

Horizon 2020 ‘Science with and for Society’ Work Programme 2018-2020
European Commission
Deadline: 4 July 2016
A short summary report on the consultation will be published by September 2016.

Evaluation and Review of the ePrivacy Directive
European Commission
Deadline: 5 July 2016

The European Single Market and the Start-up Initiative
European Commission
Deadline: 31 July 2016
Entrepreneurs and start-up communities are asked to complete a questionnaire.

Safety of Apps and Other Non-Embedded Software Used by Consumers
European Commission
Deadline: 15 September 2016


Appropriations FY2017 – The U.S. Congress continues to debate the federal appropriations bills for Fiscal Year 2017. The current FY2016 ends on September 30. With disagreements over spending priorities and whether to allow amendments, it remains unclear whether the appropriations process will be successful or scuttled. The process thus far brings good news for cybersecurity but less enthusiasm for education funding for computer science and other STEM subjects, as described next. Similar to prior years, a stopgap continuing resolution to prevent a government shutdown or omnibus bill could be the outcome.

K-12 Computer Science EducationAdvocates of computer science education are asking Congress to fund programs that support the policy goals of the Computer Science for All initiative, as proposed in the President’s FY 2017 budget proposal. The CSforAll initiative aims to expand access to quality computer science courses for all students nationwide and to increase the number of computer science educators. The Senate Appropriations Committee did not include funding in the education appropriations bill for the new Computer Science for All Development Grants and the STEM Master Teacher Corps program, which were included in the President’s FY 2017 budget proposal. The Committee noted that Student Support and Academic Enrichment Grants authorize “a range of activities to support well-rounded educational opportunities including computer science.” (See Senate Report 114-274.)

The U.S. Department of Education is considering regulations and non-regulatory guidance for the new K-12 education law, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The Department recently sought public input on what types of guidance could help states, school districts, and grantees understand the law and how to implement it. Look for continued calls for public input and transition guidance for ESSA on their website.

National Week of Making – The White House and communities nationwide will be celebrating the National Week of Making, June 17 -23, 2016. Be a part of the celebration of innovation. Learn more and share your experiences online using hashtag: #NationofMakers

White House Student Science Advisors – The White House is inviting students from around the country to submit ideas on important science, innovation, and technology issues. Spread the word to students that they have until June 17 to use this short online form to submit their ideas on how computing can help change the world.

5G Deployment and Research – The National Science Foundation (NSF) announced its intention to support the development of advanced wireless research platforms enabling at-scale experimentation for the next generation of wireless technologies. The announcement observes that current wireless Internet architectures are insufficient for wireless carriers globally and thus new technologies, such as 5G and beyond, are needed for continued growth of wireless networks and the burgeoning Internet of Things (IoT).

Privacy Best Practices for Drones – In the last of a series of multistakeholder meetings on issues regarding the commercial and private use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), convened by NTIA, a diverse group of stakeholders arrived at consensus on best practices. The final document outlines voluntary best practices for the collection, use, sharing, and security of data; user notification; and the use of drones for news reporting. The guide is intended to serve as an aid for promoting beneficial growth of innovative services, economic activity, and safer infrastructure in the United States.

Security – The Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB) will be holding a public meeting on June 15 -17, 2016 in Washington, D.C. ISPAB advises several federal agencies on issues pertaining to information systems and conducts reviews of proposed standards and guidelines developed by NIST. The meeting will include a discussion of topics such as the Internet of Things, cybersecurity resilience, Block Chain Protocol and the emerging ecosystem, high performance computing (HPC), and OMB updates on cybersecurity, privacy, and quantum cryptography.

United States – Opportunities for Public Input

U.S. Proposals and Positions for the 2016 World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Deadline: June 16, 2016

Nominations for U.S. Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring
White House
Deadline: June 17, 2016

Final Review Period: K-12 Computer Science Education Framework
Deadline: June 29, 2016

Mobile Application Vetting Services for Public Safety
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Deadline: June 30, 2016

Systems Security Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Building Trustworthy Resilient Systems (Second Draft)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Deadline: July 1, 2016

Draft Guide for Cybersecurity Event Recovery
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Deadline: July 11, 2016

Mandatory Deposit of Electronic Books and Sound Recordings Available Only Online
U.S. Copyright Office
Deadline: July 18, 2016

Nominations for National Cyber Security Hall of Fame
National Cyber Security Hall of Fame
Deadline: July 20, 2016

Nominations for the USPTO Patent Public Advisory Committee
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Deadline: July 25, 2016

Nominations for the USPTO Trademark Public Advisory Committee
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Deadline: July 25, 2016

ICT Accessibility Regulations for Local and State Governments under the ADA
U.S. Department of Justice
Deadline: August 8, 2016

Internet of Things: Identity and Access Management for Smart Home Devices Concept Paper
National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Released: June 6, 2016
Deadline: Ongoing


ACM Partners with SocialCoder
An initiative to encourage computing professionals to volunteer their professional skills and knowledge to help organizations who could not otherwise afford it.
June 2016

ACM Awards Ceremony
June 11, 2016

ACM Announces Officers for 2016-2018
Terms begin July 1, 2016.

ACM SIG Officers Election Results
Terms begin July 1, 2016.

Have events to add? Please let us know at:

ACM Europe Policy Committee

The ACM Europe Policy Committee (EUACM) is a standing committee of ACM Europe. It serves as the focal point for ACM’s interaction with the EU and member states’ governmental bodies, the computing community, and the public in matters of European public policy related to computing and technology. EUACM represents a diverse community of computing practitioners, scientists, educators, researchers, and other technology professionals from government, business, academia, and the nonprofit sector. EUACM’s contributions to public policy draws from the deep scientific and technical expertise of the computing community.

ACM U.S. Public Policy Council

The ACM U.S. Public Policy Council (USACM) is chartered as the focal point for ACM’s interaction with the U.S. government, the computing community, and the public in all matters of U.S. public policy related to computing and technology. USACM represents a diverse community of computing practitioners, scientists, educators, researchers, and other technology professionals from government, business, academia, and the nonprofit sector. USACM’s contributions to public policy draws from the deep scientific and technical expertise of the computing community.

ACM Education Policy Committee

The ACM Education Policy Committee is a high-level committee of acclaimed computer scientists and educators dedicated to improving opportunities for quality education in computer science and computing-related fields. The Education Policy Committee develops initiatives aimed at shaping education policies that impact the computing field. A primary goal of the EPC is to ensure that computer science, computing, and informatics education is recognized in educational initiatives at all levels of the educational pipeline.

STEM Education Act Becomes Law

Computer science education got a boost when President Obama signed the STEM Education Act into law. It includes computer science in the definition of STEM, strengthens formal and informal STEM education activities at specified federal agencies, and expands STEM teaching fellowship programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF).

An accompanying Senate report explains that the inclusion of computer science is due, in part, to the growing need for talent in computer science-related fields. As cited by the report, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that more than 50 percent of STEM jobs in 2020 will be in computer science and computing-related fields. The report indicates that many new STEM-related career fields, such as cybersecurity, will continue to emerge and grow over time.

“We must prepare our students for degrees in STEM subjects to ensure that they have the ability to thrive in today’s technology-based economy,” said House Science, Space, and Technology Committee Chairman Lamar Smith. The bill’s other co-sponsor, Rep. Elizabeth Betsy, said, “This bill strengthens our efforts at the federal level and ensures that critical computer science skills are included among STEM subjects.”

For educators, the NSF Noyce Master Teaching Fellowship program now allows teachers with bachelor’s degrees who are pursuing master’s degrees to participate in the program.

FCC Draws Line in the Net Neutrality Sand

In what is arguably the end of the beginning of the fights over net neutrality, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) voted yesterday, 3-2 to establish rules intended to “preserve the Internet as an open network enabling consumer choice, freedom of expression, user control, competition and the freedom to innovate.” Since both court and legislative challenges were anticipated well in advance of yesterday’s vote, and each of the five Commissioners has a different take on the order (their statements are available at the FCC website), the vote is the start of something, rather than the end. Preliminary reactions from the public suggest a division of opinion comparable (but perhaps not identical) to that of the Commission.

The order is explained as part of, but the full text is not currently available. There are three basic rules:

Transparency: Providers of broadband Internet service must publicly disclose information about their network management practices and terms of services to allow consumers to make informed choices and for application/service/content/device providers to develop their products and services for operation on those networks.

No Blocking: Providers of fixed broadband Internet services (this includes cable modems, DSL, and fixed wireless – though there is some confusion in press reports on this last point) cannot block lawful services, applications, content or non-harmful devices, unless subject to reasonable network management. The same is true for applications that might compete with providers’ telephony services (in other words, this should ensure that Voice Over Internet Protocol or Skype services can be used on a Comcast or Verizon network).

No Unreasonable Discrimination: Providers of fixed broadband services cannot unreasonably discriminate in transmitting lawful network traffic to consumers. Reasonable network management does not constitute unreasonable discrimination.

The FCC is pointedly exempting mobile networks (primarily cellular telephones) from the last two rules, under the presumption that the infrastructure and/or competitors in this space are not sufficiently mature to allow for completely open network management. This will likely be a point of contention in some circles, but will not likely attract as much attention as the fights over whether the FCC is within its authority to establish these rules, or whether the need for them exists. Those fights should last for years, absent bad behavior from a broadband provider.

PCAST Issues Report on NITRD program

On December 16 the President’s Council of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST) issued the latest in its Congressionally required assessments of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development program (NITRD). The report is now available at:

You can watch the webcast of the report release here:

If you want to review a condensed version of the report, check out the press release or this briefing from Ed Lazowska, one of the co-chairs of the report, at the November PCAST meeting.

The introductory letter in the report offers a good summary of the report’s conclusions (NIT – Networking and Information Technology):

“PCAST finds that NITRD is well coordinated and that the U.S. computing research community, coupled with a vibrant NIT industry, has made seminal discoveries and advanced new technologies that are helping to meet many societal challenges. Importantly, however, PCAST also finds that a substantial fraction of the NITRD multi-agency spending summary represents spending that supports R&D in other fields, rather than spending on R&D in the field of NIT itself. As a result, the Nation is actually investing far less in NIT R&D than the $4 billion-plus indicated in the Federal budget. To achieve America?s priorities and advance key research frontiers to support economic competitiveness in NIT, this report calls for a more accurate accounting of this national investment and recommends additional investments in NIT R&D, including research in networking and information technology for health, energy and transportation, and cyber-infrastructure, among others.”

The conclusions about how NITRD money is spent is not an allegation of inappropriate spending. The finding is that NITRD spending is not typically reported with sufficient detail to ensure that the funds are spent on research and development in NIT. What they find is a lot of spending on infrastructure and applications of NIT that should really count as infrastructure and applications spending in other fields.

The report recommendations are spread across several areas:

Helping Achieve America’s Priorities (NIT work directed toward health care, transportation, security, education, etc.)
Investing in Research Frontiers (includes HPC, trustworthy systems, cybersecurity, scalable systems)
Technological and Human Resources (focused on research infrastructure and relevant STEM education)
NITRD Coordination Process and Structure (strengthen the coordination capacity of NITRD and its coordinating office, and expand the reach of the program)

Chief Technology Officer Vivek Kundra indicated that they were seeking public comment on the report, though the official Federal Register notice has not been published yet. According to this page from the NITRD website, comments are due January 31.

FCC Seeks Comments on Definition of Broadband

As part of the National Broadband Plan that is within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) seeks “tailored comment on a fundamental question—how the Plan should interpret the term “broadband” as used in the Recovery Act, recognizing that our interpretation of the term as used in that statute may inform our interpretation of the term in other contexts.” The FCC currently considers any network speed above 786 kilobytes per second as broadband. The Commission doesn’t just want a new numerical threshold, but comments on:

  • (1) the general form, characteristics, and performance indicators that should be included in a definition of broadband;
  • (2) the thresholds that should be assigned to these performance indicators today; and
  • (3) how the definition should be reevaluated over time.

The window for comments closes on August 31st. Reply Comments (responses to comments filed) are accepted until September 8. As the notice linked to at the beginning of the post notes, comments can be submitted online, by mail, or in person.

NY Times: Science Agencies Hurt by Congressional Budgeting

Before the New Year, one of the stories we wrote (it is a couple of paragraphs down) was about Congress embracing a full-year “Continuing Resolution” for most federal agencies. They did this because the last Congress only completed 2 of its 13 appropriations bills and decided it would be too complex to pass two sets of annual approprations in one year. As the New York Times writes, the strategy will undercut some gains in funding for these agencies that were supported by Congress:

“The failure of Congress to pass new budgets for the current fiscal year has produced a crisis in science financing that threatens to close major facilities, delay new projects and leave thousands of government scientists out of work, federal and private officials say.

“The consequences for American science will be disastrous,” said Michael S. Lubell, a senior official of the American Physical Society, the world’s largest group of physicists. “The message to young scientists and industry leaders, alike, will be, “Look outside the U.S. if you want to succeed.”

“It’s rather devastating,” said Jeff Nesbit, the foundation’s [National Science Foundation] head of legislative and public affairs. “While $400 million in the grand scheme of things might seem like decimal dust, it’s hugely important for universities that rely on N.S.F. funding.”

WGIG report draws U.S. fire

The U.N. Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) recently issued its final report. The report makes a number of recommendations and proposals aimed at, among other things, creating a global multi-stakeholder forum (linked to the U.N.) to address Internet-related public policy issues and fostering full participation in Internet governance arrangements by developing countries.

However, the report instantly drew the fire of U.S. policymakers, who have no intention of passing the United States’ role in Internet governance to the U.N. Indeed, Senator Norm Coleman (R-Minn.) issued a strongly worded statement following the WGIG’s report release:
Continue reading “WGIG report draws U.S. fire”

Senate Judges Controversy Hits Boiling Point

Update 5/24/05: The Senate cut a deal last night paving the way for several judge confirmations, so looks like a ceasefire is in effect. The Washington Post has a good report on it.

Original Post 5/17/05: Today’s Washington Post reports that Republican and Democrat leaders have ended efforts to find a compromise over the confirmation of judges. (For background, the President has sent several judges to the Senate for confirmation; the Republicans seek an up or down majority vote on each one, while the Democrats are filibustering their nominations, meaning it takes 60 votes before a judge would face a simple majority vote.) This has been a leading issue in D.C. for well over a year now, but this week it is clear that something will happen. Senator Frist (R-TN) has said he will likely bring a confirmation up for debate, call for a special ruling to bypass the filibuster, and then force a simple majority vote on the ruling. (There is more nuance, but this is basic gist.) This scenario has been described in the media as the so-called “nuclear option.”
Continue reading “Senate Judges Controversy Hits Boiling Point”

Powell to Resign FCC Chairmanship

“Michael K. Powell will step down as chairman of the Federal Communications Commission after nearly four often-rocky years as the government’s top media and telecommunications regulator, the agency has confirmed.

Powell, 41, the son of outgoing Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, informed his bureau heads this morning of his decision, which he said was not spurred by another job offer, according to an FCC source who asked not to be identified. The chairman’s exit likely will come within three months, said the source. The announcement is expected to come at around noon today […]”

SOURCE: Wash. Post